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Introduction to IAS 12 - Income Taxes


Scope

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for income taxes.

For the purposes of this Standard, income taxes include all domestic and foreign taxes which are based on taxable profits. Income taxes also include taxes, such as withholding taxes, which are payable by a subsidiary, associate or joint arrangement on distributions to the reporting entity.
This Standard does not deal with the methods of accounting for government grants (see IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance) or investment tax credits. However, this Standard does deal with the accounting for temporary differences that may arise from such grants or investment tax credits.

Definitions

The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
Accounting profit is profit or loss for a period before deducting tax expense.
Taxable profit (tax loss) is the profit (loss) for a period, determined in accordance with the rules established by the taxation authorities, upon which income taxes are payable (recoverable).
Tax expense (tax income) is the aggregate amount included in the determination of profit or loss for the period in respect of current tax and deferred tax.
Current tax is the amount of income taxes payable (recoverable) in respect of the taxable profit (tax loss) for a period.
Deferred tax liabilities are the amounts of income taxes payable in future periods in respect of taxable temporary differences.
Deferred tax assets are the amounts of income taxes recoverable in future periods in respect of:

(a) deductible temporary differences;
(b) the carryforward of unused tax losses; and
(c) the carryforward of unused tax credits.

Temporary differences are differences between the carrying amount of an asset or liability in the statement of financial position and its tax base. Temporary differences may be either:
(a) taxable temporary differences, which are temporary differences that will result in taxable amounts in determining taxable profit (tax loss) of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled; or
(b) deductible temporary differences, which are temporary differences that will result in amounts that are deductible in determining taxable profit (tax loss) of future periods when the carrying amount of the asset or liability is recovered or settled.
The tax base of an asset or liability is the amount attributed to that asset or liability for tax purposes.

Tax expense (tax income) comprises current tax expense (current tax income) and deferred tax expense (deferred tax income).

Recognition of current tax liabilities and current tax assets

Current tax for current and prior periods shall, to the extent unpaid, be recognised as a liability. If the amount already paid in respect of current and prior periods exceeds the amount due for those periods, the excess shall be recognised as an asset.

The benefit relating to a tax loss that can be carried back to recover current tax of a previous period shall be recognised as an asset.

Recognition of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets

Taxable temporary differences

A deferred tax liability shall be recognised for all taxable temporary differences, except to the extent that the deferred tax liability arises from:

(a) the initial recognition of goodwill; or

(b) the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction which:
(i) is not a business combination; and

(ii) at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

Deductible temporary differences

A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilised, unless the deferred tax asset arises from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction that:

(a) is not a business combination; and

(b) at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).

However, for deductible temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, a deferred tax asset shall be recognised in accordance with paragraph 44 of the standard.

Goodwill

A If the carrying amount of goodwill arising in a business combination is less than its tax base, the difference gives rise to a deferred tax asset. The deferred tax asset arising from the initial recognition of goodwill shall be recognised as part of the accounting for a business combination to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference could be utilised.

Initial recognition of an asset or liability

One case when a deferred tax asset arises on initial recognition of an asset is when a non-taxable government grant related to an asset is deducted in arriving at the carrying amount of the asset but, for tax purposes, is not deducted from

Unused tax losses and unused tax credits

A deferred tax asset shall be recognised for the carryforward of unused tax losses and unused tax credits to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses and unused tax credits can be utilised.

Reassessment of unrecognised deferred tax assets

At the end of each reporting period, an entity reassesses unrecognised deferred tax assets. The entity recognises a previously unrecognised deferred tax asset to the extent that it has become probable that future taxable profit will allow the deferred tax asset to be recovered. For example, an improvement in trading conditions may make it more probable that the entity will be able to generate sufficient taxable profit in the future for the deferred tax asset to meet the recognition criteria set out in paragraph 24 or 34. Another example is when an entity reassesses deferred tax assets at the date of a business combination or subsequently.

Investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates and interests in joint arrangements

An entity shall recognise a deferred tax liability for all taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, except to the extent that both of the following conditions are satisfied:

(a) the parent, investor, joint venturer or joint operator is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference; and
(b) it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

An entity shall recognise a deferred tax asset for all deductible temporary differences arising from investments in subsidiaries, branches and associates, and interests in joint arrangements, to the extent that, and only to the extent that, it is probable that:

(a) the temporary difference will reverse in the foreseeable future; and
(b) taxable profit will be available against which the temporary difference can be utilised.

Measurement

Current tax liabilities (assets) for the current and prior periods shall be measured at the amount expected to be paid to (recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall be measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.

The measurement of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets shall reflect the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the entity expects, at the end of the reporting period, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities shall not be discounted.

The carrying amount of a deferred tax asset shall be reviewed at the end of each reporting period. An entity shall reduce the carrying amount of a deferred tax asset to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow the benefit of part or all of that deferred tax asset to be utilised. Any such reduction shall be reversed to the extent that it becomes probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available.r>
Recognition of current and deferred tax

Current and deferred tax shall be recognised as income or an expense and included in profit or loss for the period, except to the extent that the tax arises from:

(a) a transaction or event which is recognised, in the same or a different period, outside profit or loss, either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity or
(b) a business combination(other than the acquisition by an investment entity, as defined in IFRS 10 Consolidated Financial Statements, of a subsidiary that is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss)

A Current tax and deferred tax shall be recognised outside profit or loss if the tax relates to items that are recognised, in the same or a different period, outside profit or loss. Therefore, current tax and deferred tax that relates to items that are recognised, in the same or a different period:

(a(a) in other comprehensive income, shall be recognised in other comprehensive income.
(b) directly in equity, shall be recognised directly in equity.

Presentationrong>

An entity shall offset current tax assets and current tax liabilities if, and only if, the entity:

(a) has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts; and
(b) intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

An entity shall offset deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities if, and only if:

(a) the entity has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities; and
(b) the deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either:
(i) the same taxable entity; or

(ii) different taxable entities which intend either to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis, or to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously, in each future period in which significant amounts of deferred tax liabilities or assets are expected to be settled or recovered.

Tax expense

The tax expense (income) related to profit or loss from ordinary activities shall be presented as part of profit or loss in the statement(s) of profit or loss and other comprehensive income.

Exchange differences on deferred foreign tax liabilities or assets

IAS 21 requires certain exchange differences to be recognised as income or expense but does not specify where such differences should be presented in the statement of comprehensive income. Accordingly, where exchange differences on deferred foreign tax liabilities or assets are recognised in the statement of comprehensive income, such differences may be classified as deferred tax expense (income) if that presentation is considered to be the most useful to financial statement users.

Disclosure

The major components of tax expense (income) shall be disclosed separately.

Components of tax expense (income) may include:

(a) current tax expense (income);
(b) any adjustments recognised in the period for current tax of prior periods;
(c) the amount of deferred tax expense (income) relating to the origination and reversal of temporary differences;
(d) the amount of deferred tax expense (income) relating to changes in tax rates or the imposition of new taxes;
(e) the amount of the benefit arising from a previously unrecognised tax loss, tax credit or temporary difference of a prior period that is used to reduce current tax expense;
(f) the amount of the benefit from a previously unrecognised tax loss, tax credit or temporary difference of a prior period that is used to reduce deferred tax expense;
(g) deferred tax expense arising from the write-down, or reversal of a previous write-down, of a deferred tax asset in accordance with paragraph 56; and
(h) the amount of tax expense (income) relating to those changes in accounting policies and errors that are included in profit or loss in accordance with IAS 8, because they cannot be accounted for retrospectively.

Effective date

89 This Standard becomes operative for financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 1998.



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