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Introduction to IAS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment


Scope

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for property, plant and equipment except when another Standard requires or permits a different accounting treatment.
This Standard does not apply to:
(a) property, plant and equipment classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations;
(b) biological assets related to agricultural activity (see IAS 41 Agriculture);
(c) the recognition and measurement of exploration and evaluation assets or
(d) mineral rights and mineral reserves such as oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources.

Recognition

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment shall be recognised as an asset if, and only if:

(a) it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the entity; and
(b) the cost of the item can be measured reliably.

Initial costs

Items of property, plant and equipment may be acquired for safety or environmental reasons. The acquisition of such property, plant and equipment, although not directly increasing the future economic benefits of any particular existing item of property, plant and equipment, may be necessary for an entity to obtain the future economic benefits from its other assets. Such items of property, plant and equipment qualify for recognition as assets because they enable an entity to derive future economic benefits from related assets in excess of what could be derived had those items not been acquired. For example, a chemical manufacturer may install new chemical handling processes to comply with environmental requirements for the production and storage of dangerous chemicals; related plant enhancements are recognised as an asset because without them the entity is unable to manufacture and sell chemicals. However, the resulting carrying amount of such an asset and related assets is reviewed for impairment in accordance with IAS 36 Impairment of Assets.

Subsequent costs

Under the recognition principle in paragraph 7, an entity does not recognise in the carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment the costs of the day-to-day servicing of the item. Rather, these costs are recognised in profit or loss as incurred. Costs of day-to-day servicing are primarily the costs of labour and consumables, and may include the cost of small parts. The purpose of these expenditures is often described as for the ‘repairs and maintenance’ of the item of property, plant and equipment.

Measurement at recognition

An item of property, plant and equipment that qualifies for recognition as an asset shall be measured at its cost.

Elements of cost

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises:

(a) its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates.
(b) any costs directly attributable to bringing the asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management.
(c) the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located, the obligation for which an entity incurs either when the item is acquired or as a consequence of having used the item during a particular period for purposes other than to produce inventories during that period.

Examples of directly attributable costs are:

(a) costs of employee benefits (as defined in IAS 19 Employee Benefits) arising directly from the construction or acquisition of the item of property, plant and equipment;
(b) costs of site preparation;
(c) initial delivery and handling costs;
(d) installation and assembly costs;
(e) costs of testing whether the asset is functioning properly, after deducting the net proceeds from selling any items produced while bringing the asset to that location and condition (such as samples produced when testing equipment); and
(f) professional fees.

An entity applies IAS 2 Inventories to the costs of obligations for dismantling, removing and restoring the site on which an item is located that are incurred during a particular period as a consequence of having used the item to produce inventories during that period. The obligations for costs accounted for in accordance with IAS 2 or IAS 16 are recognised and measured in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets.

Examples of costs that are not costs of an item of property, plant and equipment are:

(a) costs of opening a new facility;
(b) costs of introducing a new product or service (including costs of advertising and promotional activities);
(c) costs of conducting business in a new location or with a new class of customer (including costs of staff training); and
(d) administration and other general overhead costs.

Measurement of cost

The cost of an item of property, plant and equipment is the cash price equivalent at the recognition date. If payment is deferred beyond normal credit terms, the difference between the cash price equivalent and the total payment is recognised as interest over the period of credit unless such interest is capitalised in accordance with IAS 23.

Measurement after recognition

An entity shall choose either the cost model in paragraph 30 or the revaluation model in paragraph 31 as its accounting policy and shall apply that policy to an entire class of property, plant and equipment.

Cost model

After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment shall be carried at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses.

Revaluation model

After recognition as an asset, an item of property, plant and equipment whose fair value can be measured reliably shall be carried at a revalued amount, being its fair value at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent accumulated depreciation and subsequent accumulated impairment losses. Revaluations shall be made with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount does not differ materially from that which would be determined using fair value at the end of the reporting period.

If an item of property, plant and equipment is revalued, the entire class of property, plant and equipment to which that asset belongs shall be revalued.

A class of property, plant and equipment is a grouping of assets of a similar nature and use in an entity’s operations. The following are examples of separate classes:

(a) land;
(b) land and buildings;
(c) machinery;
(d) ships;
(e) aircraft;
(f) motor vehicles;
(g) furniture and fixtures; and
(h) office equipment.

If an asset’s carrying amount is increased as a result of a revaluation, the increase shall be recognised in other comprehensive income and accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation surplus. However, the increase shall be recognised in profit or loss to the extent that it reverses a revaluation decrease of the same asset previously recognised in profit or loss.

If an asset’s carrying amount is decreased as a result of a revaluation, the decrease shall be recognised in profit or loss. However, the decrease shall be recognised in other comprehensive income to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation surplus in respect of that asset. The decrease recognised in other comprehensive income reduces the amount accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation surplus.

Depreciation

Each part of an item of property, plant and equipment with a cost that is significant in relation to the total cost of the item shall be depreciated separately.

The depreciation charge for each period shall be recognised in profit or loss unless it is included in the carrying amount of another asset.

Depreciable amount and depreciation period

The depreciable amount of an asset shall be allocated on a systematic basis over its useful life.

The residual value and the useful life of an asset shall be reviewed at least at each financial year-end and, if expectations differ from previous estimates, the change(s) shall be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors.

Depreciation method

The depreciation method used shall reflect the pattern in which the asset’s future economic benefits are expected to be consumed by the entity.

The depreciation method applied to an asset shall be reviewed at least at each financial year-end and, if there has been a significant change in the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in the asset, the method shall be changed to reflect the changed pattern. Such a change shall be accounted for as a change in an accounting estimate in accordance with IAS 8.

Impairment

To determine whether an item of property, plant and equipment is impaired, an entity applies IAS 36 Impairment of Assets. That Standard explains how an entity reviews the carrying amount of its assets, how it determines the recoverable amount of an asset, and when it recognises, or reverses the recognition of, an impairment loss.

Derecognition

The carrying amount of an item of property, plant and equipment shall be derecognised:

(a) on disposal; or
(b) when no future economic benefits are expected from its use or disposal.

The gain or loss arising from the derecognition of an item of property, plant and equipment shall be included in profit or loss when the item is derecognised (unless IAS 17 requires otherwise on a sale and leaseback). Gains shall not be classified as revenue.

Disclosure

The financial statements shall disclose, for each class of property, plant and equipment:

(a) the measurement bases used for determining the gross carrying amount;
(b) the depreciation methods used;
(c) the useful lives or the depreciation rates used;
(d) the gross carrying amount and the accumulated depreciation (aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period; and
(e) a reconciliation of the carrying amounts at the beginning and end of the period.

If items of property, plant and equipment are stated at revalued amounts, the following shall be disclosed in addition to the disclosures required by IFRS 13:

(a) the effective date of the revaluation;
(b) whether an independent valuer was involved;
(c) for each revalued class of property, plant and equipment, the carrying amount that would have been recognised had the assets been carried under the cost model; and
(d) the revaluation surplus, indicating the change for the period and any restrictions on the distribution of the balance to shareholders.

Effective date

An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is encouraged



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