• Register
Search Questions / Answers

Welcome to AccountantAnswer Forum, where you can ask questions and receive answers. Although you need not be a member to ask questions or provide answers, we invite you to register an account and be a member of our community for mutual help. You can register with your email or with facebook login in few seconds

Get AccountantAnswer App

Ask a question:

Introduction to IAS 17 - Leases


Scope

This Standard shall be applied in accounting for all leases other than:

(a) leases to explore for or use minerals, oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources; and
(b) licensing agreements for such items as motion picture films, video recordings, plays, manuscripts, patents and copyrights.

However, this Standard shall not be applied as the basis of measurement for:
(a) property held by lessees that is accounted for as investment property (see IAS 40 Investment Property);
(b) investment property provided by lessors under operating leases (see IAS 40);
(c) biological assets held by lessees under finance leases (see IAS 41 Agriculture); or
(d) biological assets provided by lessors under operating leases (see IAS 41).

Classification of leases

A lease is classified as a finance lease if it transfers substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership. A lease is classified as an operating lease if it does not transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership.

Finance leases in the financial statements of lessees

Initial recognition

At the commencement of the lease term, lessees shall recognise finance leases as assets and liabilities in their statements of financial position at amounts equal to the fair value of the leased property or, if lower, the present value of the minimum lease payments, each determined at the inception of the lease. The discount rate to be used in calculating the present value of the minimum lease payments is the interest rate implicit in the lease, if this is practicable to determine; if not, the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate shall be used. Any initial direct costs of the lessee are added to the amount recognised as an asset.

Subsequent measurement

Minimum lease payments shall be apportioned between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance charge shall be allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Contingent rents shall be charged as expenses in the periods in which they are incurred.

In practice, in allocating the finance charge to periods during the lease term, a lessee may use some form of approximation to simplify the calculation.

A finance lease gives rise to depreciation expense for depreciable assets as well as finance expense for each accounting period. The depreciation policy for depreciable leased assets shall be consistent with that for depreciable assets that are owned, and the depreciation recognised shall be calculated in accordance with IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 38 Intangible Assets. If there is no reasonable certainty that the lessee will obtain ownership by the end of the lease term, the asset shall be fully depreciated over the shorter of the lease term and its useful life.

Disclosures

Lessees shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures, make the following disclosures for finance leases:

(a) for each class of asset, the net carrying amount at the end of the reporting period.
(b) a reconciliation between the total of future minimum lease payments at the end of the reporting period, and their present value. In addition, an entity shall disclose the total of future minimum lease payments at the end of the reporting period, and their present value, for each of the following periods:
   (i) not later than one year;
   (ii) later than one year and not later than five years;
   (iii) later than five years.
(c) contingent rents recognised as an expense in the period.
(d) the total of future minimum sublease payments expected to be received under non-cancellable subleases at the end of the reporting period.
(e) a general description of the lessee’s material leasing arrangements including, but not limited to, the following:
   (i) the basis on which contingent rent payable is determined;
   (ii) the existence and terms of renewal or purchase options and escalation clauses; and
   (iii) restrictions imposed by lease arrangements, such as those concerning dividends, additional debt, and further leasing.

Operating leases in the financial statements of lessees

Lease payments under an operating lease shall be recognised as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern of the user’s benefit.

Disclosures

Lessees shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of IFRS 7, make the following disclosures for operating leases:

(a) the total of future minimum lease payments under non-cancellable operating leases for each of the following periods:
(i) not later than one year;
(ii) later than one year and not later than five years;
(iii) later than five years.

Finance Leases in the financial statements of lessors

Initial recognition

Lessors shall recognise assets held under a finance lease in their statements of financial position and present them as a receivable at an amount equal to the net investment in the lease.

Subsequent measurement

The recognition of finance income shall be based on a pattern reflecting a constant periodic rate of return on the lessor’s net investment in the finance lease.

Manufacturer or dealer lessors shall recognise selling profit or loss in the period, in accordance with the policy followed by the entity for outright sales. If artificially low rates of interest are quoted, selling profit shall be restricted to that which would apply if a market rate of interest were charged. Costs incurred by manufacturer or dealer lessors in connection with negotiating and arranging a lease shall be recognised as an expense when the selling profit is recognised.

Disclosures

Lessors shall, in addition to meeting the requirements in IFRS 7, disclose the following for finance leases:

(a) a reconciliation between the gross investment in the lease at the end of the reporting period, and the present value of minimum lease payments receivable at the end of the reporting period. In addition, an entity shall disclose the gross investment in the lease and the present value of minimum lease payments receivable at the end of the reporting period, for each of the following periods:
   (i) not later than one year;
   (ii) later than one year and not later than five years;
   (iii) later than five years.
(b) unearned finance income.
(c) the unguaranteed residual values accruing to the benefit of the lessor.
(d) the accumulated allowance for uncollectible minimum lease payments receivable.
(e) contingent rents recognised as income in the period.
(f) a general description of the lessor’s material leasing arrangements.

Operating leases in the financial statements of lessors

Lessors shall present assets subject to operating leases in their statements of financial position according to the nature of the asset.

Lease income from operating leases shall be recognised in income on a straight-line basis over the lease term, unless another systematic basis is more representative of the time pattern in which use benefit derived from the leased asset is diminished.3

Initial direct costs incurred by lessors in negotiating and arranging an operating lease shall be added to the carrying amount of the leased asset and recognised as an expense over the lease term on the same basis as the lease income.

The depreciation policy for depreciable leased assets shall be consistent with the lessor’s normal depreciation policy for similar assets, and depreciation shall be calculated in accordance with IAS 16 and IAS 38.

Disclosures

Lessors shall, in addition to meeting the requirements of IFRS 7, disclose the following for operating leases:

(a) the future minimum lease payments under non-cancellable operating leases in the aggregate and for each of the following periods:
   (i) not later than one year;
   (ii) later than one year and not later than five years;
   (iii) later than five years.
(b) total contingent rents recognised as income in the period.
(c) a general description of the lessor’s leasing arrangements.

Sale and leaseback transactions

If a sale and leaseback transaction results in a finance lease, any excess of sales proceeds over the carrying amount shall not be immediately recognised as income by a seller-lessee. Instead, it shall be deferred and amortised over the lease term.

If a sale and leaseback transaction results in an operating lease, and it is clear that the transaction is established at fair value, any profit or loss shall be recognised immediately. If the sale price is below fair value, any profit or loss shall be recognised immediately except that, if the loss is compensated for by future lease payments at below market price, it shall be deferred and amortised in proportion to the lease payments over the period for which the asset is expected to be used. If the sale price is above fair value, the excess over fair value shall be deferred and amortised over the period for which the asset is expected to be used.

For operating leases, if the fair value at the time of a sale and leaseback transaction is less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss equal to the amount of the difference between the carrying amount and fair value shall be recognised immediately.

Effective date

69 An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005. Earlier application is encouraged.



...