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Introduction to IAS 28 - Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures


Scope

This Standard shall be applied by all entities that are investors with joint control of, or significant influence over, an investee.

Definitions

The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:

An associate is an entity over which the investor has significant influence.

Consolidated financial statements are the financial statements of a group in which assets, liabilities, equity, income, expenses and cash flows of the parent and its subsidiaries are presented as those of a single economic entity.

The equity method is a method of accounting whereby the investment is initially recognised at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post-acquisition change in the investor’s share of the investee’s net assets. The investor’s profit or loss includes its share of the investee’s profit or loss and the investor’s other comprehensive income includes its share of the investee’s other comprehensive income.

A joint arrangement is an arrangement of which two or more parties have joint control.

Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement.

Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control of those policies.

Significant influence

If an entity holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), 20 per cent or more of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the entity has significant influence, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. Conversely, if the entity holds, directly or indirectly (eg through subsidiaries), less than 20 per cent of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that the entity does not have significant influence, unless such influence can be clearly demonstrated. A substantial or majority ownership by another investor does not necessarily preclude an entity from having significant influence.

The existence of significant influence by an entity is usually evidenced in one or more of the following ways:

(a) representation on the board of directors or equivalent governing body of the investee;
(b) participation in policy-making processes, including participation in decisions about dividends or other distributions;
(c) material transactions between the entity and its investee; (d) interchange of managerial personnel; or
(e) provision of essential technical information.

Equity method

Under the equity method, on initial recognition the investment in an associate or a joint venture is recognised at cost, and the carrying amount is increased or decreased to recognise the investor’s share of the profit or loss of the investee after the date of acquisition. The investor’s share of the investee’s profit or loss is recognised in the investor’s profit or loss. Distributions received from an investee reduce the carrying amount of the investment. Adjustments to the carrying amount may also be necessary for changes in the investor’s proportionate interest in the investee arising from changes in the investee’s other comprehensive income. Such changes include those arising from the revaluation of property, plant and equipment and from foreign exchange translation differences. The investor’s share of those changes is recognised in the investor’s other comprehensive income (see IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements).

Application of the equity method

An entity with joint control of, or significant influence over, an investee shall account for its investment in an associate or a joint venture using the equity method except when that investment qualifies for exemption.

Exemptions from applying the equity method

An entity need not apply the equity method to its investment in an associate or a joint venture if the entity is a parent that is exempt from preparing consolidated financial statements by the scope exception in paragraph 4(a) of IFRS 10 or if all the following apply:

(a) The entity is a wholly-owned subsidiary, or is a partially-owned subsidiary of another entity and its other owners, including those not otherwise entitled to vote, have been informed about, and do not object to, the entity not applying the equity method.
(b) The entity’s debt or equity instruments are not traded in a public market (a domestic or foreign stock exchange or an over-the-counter market, including local and regional markets).
(c) The entity did not file, nor is it in the process of filing, its financial statements with a securities commission or other regulatory organisation, for the purpose of issuing any class of instruments in a public market.
(d) The ultimate or any intermediate parent of the entity produces consolidated financial statements available for public use that comply with IFRSs.

Classification as held for sale

An entity shall apply IFRS 5 to an investment, or a portion of an investment, in an associate or a joint venture that meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale. Any retained portion of an investment in an associate or a joint venture that has not been classified as held for sale shall be accounted for using the equity method until disposal of the portion that is classified as held for sale takes place. After the disposal takes place, an entity shall account for any retained interest in the associate or joint venture in accordance with IFRS 9 unless the retained interest continues to be an associate or a joint venture, in which case the entity uses the equity method.

Discontinuing the use of the equity method

An entity shall discontinue the use of the equity method from the date when its investment ceases to be an associate or a joint venture as follows:

(a) If the investment becomes a subsidiary, the entity shall account for its investment in accordance with IFRS 3 Business Combinations and IFRS 10.
(b) If the retained interest in the former associate or joint venture is a financial asset, the entity shall measure the retained interest at fair value. The fair value of the retained interest shall be regarded as its fair value on initial recognition as a financial asset in accordance with IFRS 9. The entity shall recognise in profit or loss any difference between:
(i) the fair value of any retained interest and any proceeds from disposing of a part interest in the associate or joint venture; and
(ii) the carrying amount of the investment at the date the equity method was discontinued.
(c) When an entity discontinues the use of the equity method, the entity shall account for all amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in relation to that investment on the same basis as would have been required if the investee had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities.

If an investment in an associate becomes an investment in a joint venture or an investment in a joint venture becomes an investment in an associate, the entity continues to apply the equity method and does not remeasure the retained interest.

Changes in ownership interest

If an entity’s ownership interest in an associate or a joint venture is reduced, but the entity continues to apply the equity method, the entity shall reclassify to profit or loss the proportion of the gain or loss that had previously been recognised in other comprehensive income relating to that reduction in ownership interest if that gain or loss would be required to be reclassified to profit or loss on the disposal of the related assets or liabilities.

Equity method procedures

Many of the procedures that are appropriate for the application of the equity method are similar to the consolidation procedures described in IFRS 10. Furthermore, the concepts underlying the procedures used in accounting for the acquisition of a subsidiary are also adopted in accounting for the acquisition of an investment in an associate or a joint venture.

The most recent available financial statements of the associate or joint venture are used by the entity in applying the equity method. When the end of the reporting period of the entity is different from that of the associate or joint venture, the associate or joint venture prepares, for the use of the entity, financial statements as of the same date as the financial statements of the entity unless it is impracticable to do so.

The entity’s financial statements shall be prepared using uniform accounting policies for like transactions and events in similar circumstances.

Impairment losses

After application of the equity method, including recognising the associate’s or joint venture’s losses in accordance with paragraph 38, the entity applies IAS 39
Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement to determine whether it is
necessary to recognise any additional impairment loss with respect to its net investment in the associate or joint venture.

The entity also applies IAS 39 to determine whether any additional impairment loss is recognised with respect to its interest in the associate or joint venture that does not constitute part of the net investment and the amount of that impairment loss.

Separate financial statements

An investment in an associate or a joint venture shall be accounted for in the entity’s separate financial statements in accordance with paragraph 10 of IAS 27 (as amended in 2011).

Effective date

45 An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013.



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