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Introduction to IAS 40 - Investment Property


Scope

This Standard shall be applied in the recognition, measurement and disclosure of investment property.

Among other things, this Standard applies to the measurement in a lessee’s financial statements of investment property interests held under a lease accounted for as a finance lease and to the measurement in a lessor’s financial statements of investment property provided to a lessee under an operating lease. This Standard does not deal with matters covered in IAS 17 Leases, including:

(a) classification of leases as finance leases or operating leases;
(b) recognition of lease income from investment property (see also IAS 18 Revenue);
(c) measurement in a lessee’s financial statements of property interests held under a lease accounted for as an operating lease;
(d) measurement in a lessor’s financial statements of its net investment in a finance lease;
(e) accounting for sale and leaseback transactions; and
(f) disclosure about finance leases and operating leases.

This Standard does not apply to:

(a) biological assets related to agricultural activity (see IAS 41 Agriculture); and
(b) mineral rights and mineral reserves such as oil, natural gas and similar non-regenerative resources.

The following are examples of investment property:

(a) land held for long-term capital appreciation rather than for short-term sale in the ordinary course of business.

(b) land held for a currently undetermined future use. (If an entity has not determined that it will use the land as owner-occupied property or for short-term sale in the ordinary course of business, the land is regarded as held for capital appreciation.)

(c) a building owned by the entity (or held by the entity under a finance lease) and leased out under one or more operating leases.

(d) a building that is vacant but is held to be leased out under one or more operating leases.

(e) property that is being constructed or developed for future use as investment property.

Recognition

Investment property shall be recognised as an asset when, and only when:

(a) it is probable that the future economic benefits that are associated with the investment property will flow to the entity; and
(b) the cost of the investment property can be measured reliably.

Measurement at recognition

An investment property shall be measured initially at its cost.,Transaction costs shall be included in the initial measurement.

The initial cost of a property interest held under a lease and classified as an investment property shall be as prescribed for a finance lease by paragraph 20 of IAS 17, ie the asset shall be recognised at the lower of the fair value of the property and the present value of the minimum lease payments. An equivalent amount shall be recognised as a liability in accordance with that same paragraph.

Measurement after recognition

Accounting policy

With the exceptions noted in paragraphs 32A and 34, an entity shall choose as its accounting policy either the fair value model or the cost model and shall apply that policy to all of its investment property.

An entity may:

(a) choose either the fair value model or the cost model for all investment property backing liabilities that pay a return linked directly to the fair value of, or returns from, specified assets including that investment property; and
(b) choose either the fair value model or the cost model for all other investment property, regardless of the choice made in (a).

Fair value model

After initial recognition, an entity that chooses the fair value model shall measure all of its investment property at fair value, except in the cases described in paragraph 53.

When a property interest held by a lessee under an operating lease is classified as an investment property under paragraph 6, paragraph 30 is not elective; the fair value model shall be applied. A gain or loss arising from a change in the fair value of investment property shall be recognised in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.

Inability to measure fair value reliably

There is a rebuttable presumption that an entity can reliably measure the fair value of an investment property on a continuing basis. If an entity determines that the fair value of an investment property under construction is not reliably measurable but expects the fair value of the property to be reliably measurable when construction is complete, it shall measure that investment property under construction at cost until either its fair value becomes reliably measurable or construction is completed (whichever is earlier). If an entity determines that the fair value of an investment property (other than an investment property under construction) is not reliably measurable on a continuing basis, the entity shall measure that investment property using the cost model in IAS 16. The residual value of the investment property shall be assumed to be zero. The entity shall apply IAS 16 until disposal of the investment property.

If an entity has previously measured an investment property at fair value, it shall continue to measure the property at fair value until disposal (or until the property becomes owner-occupied property or the entity begins to develop the property for subsequent sale in the ordinary course of business) even if comparable market transactions become less frequent or market prices become less readily available.

Cost model

After initial recognition, an entity that chooses the cost model shall measure all of its investment properties in accordance with IAS 16’s requirements for that model, other than those that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale (or are included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations. Investment properties that meet the criteria to be classified as held for sale (or are included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) shall be measured in accordance with IFRS 5.

Transfers

Transfers to, or from, investment property shall be made when, and only when, there is a change in use, evidenced by:

(a) commencement of owner-occupation, for a transfer from investment property to owner-occupied property;
(b) commencement of development with a view to sale, for a transfer from investment property to inventories;
(c) end of owner-occupation, for a transfer from owner-occupied property to investment property; or
(d) commencement of an operating lease to another party, for a transfer from inventories to investment property.

For a transfer from investment property carried at fair value to owner-occupied property or inventories, the property’s deemed cost for subsequent accounting in accordance with IAS 16 or IAS 2 shall be its fair value at the date of change in use.

If an owner-occupied property becomes an investment property that will be carried at fair value, an entity shall apply IAS 16 up to the date of change in use. The entity shall treat any difference at that date between the carrying amount of the property in accordance with IAS 16 and its fair value in the same way as a revaluation in accordance with IAS 16.

For a transfer from inventories to investment property that will be carried at fair value, any difference between the fair value of the property at that date and its previous carrying amount shall be recognised in profit or loss.

The treatment of transfers from inventories to investment property that will be carried at fair value is consistent with the treatment of sales of inventories.

When an entity completes the construction or development of a self-constructed investment property that will be carried at fair value, any difference between the fair value of the property at that date and its previous carrying amount shall be recognised in profit or loss.

Disposals

An investment property shall be derecognised (eliminated from the statement of financial position) on disposal or when the investment property is permanently withdrawn from use and no future economic benefits are expected from its disposal.

Gains or losses arising from the retirement or disposal of investment property shall be determined as the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and shall be recognised in profit or loss (unless IAS 17 requires otherwise on a sale and leaseback) in the period of the retirement or disposal.

Compensation from third parties for investment property that was impaired, lost or given up shall be recognised in profit or loss when the compensation becomes receivable.

Disclosure

Fair value model and cost model

The disclosures below apply in addition to those in IAS 17. In accordance with IAS 17, the owner of an investment property provides lessors’ disclosures about leases into which it has entered. An entity that holds an investment property under a finance or operating lease provides lessees’ disclosures for finance leases and lessors’ disclosures for any operating leases into which it has entered.

An entity shall disclose:

(a) whether it applies the fair value model or the cost model.
(b) if it applies the fair value model, whether, and in what circumstances, property interests held under operating leases are classified and accounted for as investment property.
(c) when classification is difficult (see paragraph 14), the criteria it uses to distinguish investment property from owner-occupied property and from property held for sale in the ordinary course of business.
(d) the extent to which the fair value of investment property (as measured or disclosed in the financial statements) is based on a valuation by an independent valuer who holds a recognised and relevant professional qualification and has recent experience in the location and category of the investment property being valued. If there has been no such valuation, that fact shall be disclosed.
(e) the amounts recognised in profit or loss for:
(i) rental income from investment property;
(ii) direct operating expenses (including repairs and maintenance) arising from investment property that generated rental income during the period; and
(iii) direct operating expenses (including repairs and maintenance) arising from investment property that did not generate rental income during the period.
(iv) the cumulative change in fair value recognised in profit or loss on a sale of investment property from a pool of assets in which the cost model is used into a pool in which the fair value model is used (see paragraph 32C).
(g) the existence and amounts of restrictions on the realisability of investment property or the remittance of income and proceeds of disposal.
(h) contractual obligations to purchase, construct or develop investment property or for repairs, maintenance or enhancements.

Fair value model

In addition to the disclosures required by paragraph 75, an entity that applies the fair value model in paragraphs 33–55 shall disclose a reconciliation between the carrying amounts of investment property at the beginning and end of the period, showing the following:

(a) additions, disclosing separately those additions resulting from acquisitions and those resulting from subsequent expenditure recognised in the carrying amount of an asset;
(b) additions resulting from acquisitions through business combinations;
(c) assets classified as held for sale or included in a disposal group classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 and other disposals;
(d) net gains or losses from fair value adjustments;
(e) the net exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements into a different presentation currency, and on translation of a foreign operation into them presentation currency of the reporting entity;
(f) transfers to and from inventories and owner-occupied property; and
(g) other changes.

When a valuation obtained for investment property is adjusted significantly for the purpose of the financial statements, for example to avoid double-counting of assets or liabilities that are recognised as separate assets and liabilities as described in paragraph 50, the entity shall disclose a reconciliation between the valuation obtained and the adjusted valuation included in the financial statements, showing separately the aggregate amount of any recognised lease obligations that have been added back, and any other significant adjustments.

In the exceptional cases referred to in paragraph 53, when an entity measures investment property using the cost model in IAS 16, the reconciliation required by paragraph 76 shall disclose amounts relating to that investment property separately from amounts relating to other investment property. In addition, an entity shall disclose:

(a) a description of the investment property;
(b) an explanation of why fair value cannot be measured reliably;
(c) if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie; and
(d) on disposal of investment property not carried at fair value:
(i) the fact that the entity has disposed of investment property not carried at fair value;
(ii) the carrying amount of that investment property at the time of sale; and
(iii) the amount of gain or loss recognised.

Cost model

(a) the depreciation methods used;
(b) the useful lives or the depreciation rates used;
(c) the gross carrying amount and the accumulated depreciation (aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period;
(d) a reconciliation of the carrying amount of investment property at the beginning and end of the period, showing the following:
(i) additions, disclosing separately those additions resulting from acquisitions and those resulting from subsequent expenditure recognised as an asset;
(ii) additions resulting from acquisitions through business combinations;
(iii) assets classified as held for sale or included in a disposal group classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 and other disposals;
(iv) depreciation;
(v) the amount of impairment losses recognised, and the amount of impairment losses reversed, during the period in accordance with IAS 36;
(vi) the net exchange differences arising on the translation of the financial statements into a different presentation currency, and on translation of a foreign operation into the presentation currency of the reporting entity;
(vii) transfers to and from inventories and owner-occupied property; and
(viii) other changes; and
(e) the fair value of investment property. In the exceptional cases described in paragraph 53, when an entity cannot measure the fair value of the investment property reliably, it shall disclose:
(i) a description of the investment property;
(ii) an explanation of why fair value cannot be measured reliably; and
(iii) if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie.

Effective date

An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.



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