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Introduction to IAS 41 - Agriculture


Scope

This Standard shall be applied to account for the following when they relate to agricultural activity:

(a) biological assets;
(b) agricultural produce at the point of harvest; and
(c) government grants

This Standard does not apply to:

(a) land related to agricultural activity (see IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 40 Investment Property); and
(b) intangible assets related to agricultural activity (see IAS 38 Intangible Assets).

This Standard is applied to agricultural produce, which is the harvested product of the entity’s biological assets, only at the point of harvest. Thereafter, IAS 2 Inventories or another applicable Standard is applied. Accordingly, this Standard does not deal with the processing of agricultural produce after harvest; for example, the processing of grapes into wine by a vintner who has grown the grapes. While such processing may be a logical and natural extension of agricultural activity, and the events taking place may bear some similarity to biological transformation, such processing is not included within the definition of agricultural activity in this Standard.

Agriculture-related definitions

Agricultural activity is the management by an entity of the biological transformation and harvest of biological assets for sale or for conversion into agricultural produce or into additional biological assets.
Agricultural produce is the harvested product of the entity’s biological assets.
A biological asset is a living animal or plant.
Biological transformation comprises the processes of growth, degeneration, production, and procreation that cause qualitative or quantitative changes in a biological asset.
Costs to sell are the incremental costs directly attributable to the disposal of an asset, excluding finance costs and income taxes.
A group of biological assets is an aggregation of similar living animals or plants.
Harvest is the detachment of produce from a biological asset or the cessation of a biological asset’s life processes.

Recognition and measurement

An entity shall recognise a biological asset or agricultural produce when, and only when:

(a) the entity controls the asset as a result of past events;
(b) it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the asset will flow to the entity; and
(c) the fair value or cost of the asset can be measured reliably.

In agricultural activity, control may be evidenced by, for example, legal ownership of cattle and the branding or otherwise marking of the cattle on acquisition, birth, or weaning. The future benefits are normally assessed by measuring the significant physical attributes.

A biological asset shall be measured on initial recognition and at the end of each reporting period at its fair value less costs to sell, except for the case described in paragraph 30 where the fair value cannot be measured reliably.

Agricultural produce harvested from an entity’s biological assets shall be measured at its fair value less costs to sell at the point of harvest. Such measurement is the cost at that date when applying IAS 2 Inventories or another applicable Standard.

Gains and losses

A gain or loss arising on initial recognition of a biological asset at fair value less costs to sell and from a change in fair value less costs to sell of a biological asset shall be included in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.

A loss may arise on initial recognition of a biological asset, because costs to sell are deducted in determining fair value less costs to sell of a biological asset. A gain may arise on initial recognition of a biological asset, such as when a calf is born.

A gain or loss arising on initial recognition of agricultural produce at fair value less costs to sell shall be included in profit or loss for the period in which it arises.

A gain or loss may arise on initial recognition of agricultural produce as a result of harvesting.

Inability to measure fair value reliably

There is a presumption that fair value can be measured reliably for a biological asset. However, that presumption can be rebutted only on initial recognition for a biological asset for which quoted market prices are not available and for which alternative fair value measurements are determined to be clearly unreliable. In such a case, that biological asset shall be measured at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses. Once the fair value of such a biological asset becomes reliably measurable, an entity shall measure it at its fair value less costs to sell. Once a non-current biological asset meets the criteria to be classified as held for sale (or is included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations, it is presumed that fair value can be measured reliably.

Government grants

An unconditional government grant related to a biological asset measured at its fair value less costs to sell shall be recognised in profit or loss when, and only when, the government grant becomes receivable.

If a government grant related to a biological asset measured at its fair value less costs to sell is conditional, including when a government grant requires an entity not to engage in specified agricultural activity, an entity shall recognise the government grant in profit or loss when, and only when, the conditions attaching to the government grant are met.

Disclosure

An entity shall disclose the aggregate gain or loss arising during the current period on initial recognition of biological assets and agricultural produce and from the change in fair value less costs to sell of biological assets.

An entity shall provide a description of each group of biological assets.

If not disclosed elsewhere in information published with the financial statements, an entity shall describe:

(a) the nature of its activities involving each group of biological assets; and
(b) non-financial measures or estimates of the physical quantities of:
(i) each group of the entity’s biological assets at the end of the period; and
(ii) output of agricultural produce during the period.

An entity shall disclose:

(a) the existence and carrying amounts of biological assets whose title is restricted, and the carrying amounts of biological assets pledged as security for liabilities;
(b) the amount of commitments for the development or acquisition of biological assets; and
(c) financial risk management strategies related to agricultural activity.

An entity shall present a reconciliation of changes in the carrying amount of biological assets between the beginning and the end of the current period. The reconciliation shall include:

(a) the gain or loss arising from changes in fair value less costs to sell;
(b) increases due to purchases;
(c) decreases attributable to sales and biological assets classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5;
(d) decreases due to harvest;
(e) increases resulting from business combinations;
(f) net exchange differences arising on the translation of financial statements into a different presentation currency, and on the translation of a foreign operation into the presentation currency of the reporting entity; and
(g) other changes.

Additional disclosures for biological assets where fair value cannot be measured reliably

54 If an entity measures biological assets at their cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses (see paragraph 30) at the end of the period, the entity shall disclose for such biological assets:

(a) a description of the biological assets;
(b) an explanation of why fair value cannot be measured reliably;
(c) if possible, the range of estimates within which fair value is highly likely to lie;
(d) the depreciation method used;
(e) the useful lives or the depreciation rates used; and
(f) the gross carrying amount and the accumulated depreciation (aggregated with accumulated impairment losses) at the beginning and end of the period.

If, during the current period, an entity measures biological assets at their cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses (see paragraph 30), an entity shall disclose any gain or loss recognised on disposal of such biological assets and the reconciliation required by paragraph 50 shall disclose amounts related to such biological assets separately. In addition, the reconciliation shall include the following amounts included in profit or loss related to those biological assets:

(a) impairment losses;
(b) reversals of impairment losses; and
(c) depreciation.

If the fair value of biological assets previously measured at their cost less any accumulated depreciation and any accumulated impairment losses becomes reliably measurable during the current period, an entity shall disclose for those biological assets:

(a) a description of the biological assets;
(b) an explanation of why fair value has become reliably measurable; and
(c) the effect of the change.

Government grants

An entity shall disclose the following related to agricultural activity covered by this Standard:

(a) the nature and extent of government grants recognised in the financial statements;
(b) unfulfilled conditions and other contingencies attaching to government grants; and
(c) significant decreases expected in the level of government grants.

Effective date

This Standard becomes operative for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003.



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