1 International Financial Reporting Standard 13 Fair Value Measurement (IFRS 13): (a) defines fair value;
(b) sets out in a single IFRS a framework for measuring fair value; and
(c) requires disclosures about fair value measurements.
2 The IFRS applies to IFRSs that require or permit fair value measurements or disclosures about fair value measurements (and measurements, such as fair value less costs to sell, based on fair value or disclosures about those measurements), except in specified circumstances.
3 The IFRS is to be applied for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013. Earlier application is permitted.
4 The IFRS explains how to measure fair value for financial reporting. It does not require fair value measurements in addition to those already required or permitted by other IFRSs and is not intended to establish valuation standards or affect valuation practices outside financial reporting.
Reasons for issuing the IFRS
5 Some IFRSs require or permit entities to measure or disclose the fair value of assets, liabilities or their own equity instruments. Because those IFRSs were developed over many years, the requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements were dispersed and in many cases did not articulate a clear measurement or disclosure objective.
6 As a result, some of those IFRSs contained limited guidance about how to measure fair value, whereas others contained extensive guidance and that guidance was not always consistent across those IFRSs that refer to fair value. Inconsistencies in the requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements have contributed to diversity in practice and have reduced the comparability of information reported in financial statements. IFRS 13 remedies that situation.
7 Furthermore, in 2006 the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the US national standard-setter, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), published a Memorandum of Understanding, which has served as the foundation of the boards’ efforts to create a common set of high quality global accounting standards. Consistent with the Memorandum of Understanding and the boards’ commitment to achieving that goal, IFRS 13 is the result of the work by the IASB and the FASB to develop common requirements for measuring fair value and for disclosing information about fair value measurements in accordance with IFRSs and US generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
8 IFRS 13 defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (ie an exit price).
9 That definition of fair value emphasises that fair value is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. When measuring fair value, an entity uses the assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability under current market conditions, including assumptions about risk. As a result, an entity’s intention to hold an asset or to settle or otherwise fulfil a liability is not relevant when measuring fair value.
10 The IFRS explains that a fair value measurement requires an entity to determine the following:
(a) the particular asset or liability being measured;
(b) for a non-financial asset, the highest and best use of the asset and whether the asset is used in combination with other assets or on a stand-alone basis;
(c) the market in which an orderly transaction would take place for the asset or liability; and
(d) the appropriate valuation technique(s) to use when measuring fair value. The valuation technique(s) used should maximise the use of relevant observable inputs and minimise unobservable inputs. Those inputs should be consistent with the inputs a market participant would use when pricing the asset or liability.